Design Patterns 贰

posted at 2023.5.20 12:34 by 风信子

Decorator结构:动态地给一个对象添加一些额外的职责。就扩展功能而言,该模式比生成子类方式更为灵活。

    abstract class Component{
        public abstract void Operation();
    } 
    class ConcreteComponent : Component {
        public override void Operation(){
            Console.WriteLine("具体对象的操作");
        }
    } 
    abstract class Decorator : Component{
        protected Component component;
        public void SetComponent(Component component) {
            this.component = component;
        }
        public override void Operation(){
            if (component != null) {
                component.Operation();
            }
        }
    }
    class ConcreteDecoratorA : Decorator{
        private string addedState;
        public override void Operation(){
            base.Operation();
            addedState = "New State";
            Console.WriteLine("具体装饰对象A的操作");
        }
    }
    class ConcreteDecoratorB : Decorator{
        public override void Operation(){
            base.Operation();
            AddedBehavior();
            Console.WriteLine("具体装饰对象B的操作");
        }
        private void AddedBehavior(){
        }
    }
    class Program{
        static void Main(string[] args) {
            ConcreteComponent c = new ConcreteComponent();
            ConcreteDecoratorA d1 = new ConcreteDecoratorA();
            ConcreteDecoratorB d2 = new ConcreteDecoratorB();
            d1.SetComponent(c);
            d2.SetComponent(d1);
            d2.Operation();
            Console.Read();
        }
    }

Façade结构:为子系统中的一组接口提供一个一致的界面,该模式定义了一个高层接口,这个接口使得这一子系统更加容易使用。

    class Facade {
        SubSystemOne one;
        SubSystemTwo two;
        SubSystemThree three;
        SubSystemFour four;
        public Facade(){
            one = new SubSystemOne();
            two = new SubSystemTwo();
            three = new SubSystemThree();
            four = new SubSystemFour();
        }
        public void MethodA(){
            Console.WriteLine("\n方法组A() ---- ");
            one.MethodOne();
            two.MethodTwo();
            four.MethodFour();
        }
        public void MethodB(){
            Console.WriteLine("\n方法组B() ---- ");
            two.MethodTwo();
            three.MethodThree();
        }
    }
    class SubSystemOne{
        public void MethodOne(){
            Console.WriteLine(" 子系统方法一");
        }
    } 

Factory Method创建:定义一个用于创建对象的接口,让子类决定将哪一个类实例化。它使一个类的实例化延迟到其子类。Factory Mehtod模式解决"单个对象"的需求变化,AbstractFactory模式解决"系列对象"的需求变化。

abstract class AbstractFactory{
    public abstract AbstractProductA CreateProduct();
}
abstract class AbstractProduct{
}

Flyweight结构:运用共享技术有效了支持大量细粒度的对象。Flyweight是一个类的可共享实例,可以有几个。

    class FlyweightFactory{
        private Hashtable flyweights = new Hashtable();
        public FlyweightFactory(){
            flyweights.Add("X", new ConcreteFlyweight());
            flyweights.Add("Y", new ConcreteFlyweight());
            flyweights.Add("Z", new ConcreteFlyweight());
        }
        public Flyweight GetFlyweight(string key) {
            return ((Flyweight)flyweights[key]);
        }
    }
    abstract class Flyweight{
        public abstract void Operation(int extrinsicstate);
    }
    class ConcreteFlyweight : Flyweight{
        public override void Operation(int extrinsicstate) {
            Console.WriteLine("具体Flyweight:" + extrinsicstate);
        }
    }
    class UnsharedConcreteFlyweight : Flyweight{
        public override void Operation(int extrinsicstate) {
            Console.WriteLine("不共享的具体Flyweight:" + extrinsicstate);
        }
    }
    class Program{
        static void Main(string[] args) {
            int extrinsicstate = 22;
            FlyweightFactory f = new FlyweightFactory();
            Flyweight fx = f.GetFlyweight("X");
            fx.Operation(--extrinsicstate);
            Flyweight fy = f.GetFlyweight("Y");
            fy.Operation(--extrinsicstate);
            Flyweight fz = f.GetFlyweight("Z");
            fz.Operation(--extrinsicstate);
            UnsharedConcreteFlyweight uf = new UnsharedConcreteFlyweight();
            uf.Operation(--extrinsicstate);
            Console.Read();
        }
    }

Interpreter行为:给定一个语言,定义它的文法的一种表示,并定义一个解释器,该解释器使用该表示来解释语言中的句子。

class Context{
        private string input;
        public string Input{
            get { return input; }
            set { input = value; }
        }
        private string output;
        public string Output{
            get { return output; }
            set { output = value; }
        }
    } 
    abstract class AbstractExpression{
        public abstract void Interpret(Context context);
    }
    class TerminalExpression : AbstractExpression{
        public override void Interpret(Context context) {
            Console.WriteLine("终端解释器");
        }
    }
    class NonterminalExpression : AbstractExpression{
        public override void Interpret(Context context) {
            Console.WriteLine("非终端解释器");
        }
    }
    class Program{
        static void Main(string[] args) {
            Context context = new Context();
            IList<AbstractExpression> list = new List<AbstractExpression>();
            list.Add(new TerminalExpression());
            list.Add(new NonterminalExpression());
            list.Add(new TerminalExpression());
            list.Add(new TerminalExpression());
            foreach (AbstractExpression exp in list) {
                exp.Interpret(context);
            }
            Console.Read();
        }
    }

Iterator行为:提供一种方法顺序访问一个聚合对象中各个元素,而又不需要暴露该对象的内部表示。.NET框架已经封装。

        static void Main(string[] args) {
            IList<string> a = new List<string>();
            a.Add("大鸟");
            a.Add("小菜");
            foreach (string item in a) {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} 请买车票!", item);
            }
           // IEnumerator<string> e = a.GetEnumerator();
           // while (e.MoveNext()){
           //     Console.WriteLine("{0} 请买车票!", e.Current);
           // }
            Console.Read();
        }

Mediator行为:用一个中介对象来封装一系列的对象交互。中介者使各对象不需要显式地相互引用,从而使其耦合松散,而且可以独立地改变它们之间的交互。

//联合国机构
    abstract class UnitedNations{
        public abstract void Declare(string message, Country colleague);
    }
 
    //联合国安全理事会
    class UnitedNationsSecurityCouncil : UnitedNations{
        private USA colleague1;
        private Iraq colleague2;
        public USA Colleague1{
            set { colleague1 = value; }
        }
        public Iraq Colleague2{
            set { colleague2 = value; }
        }
        public override void Declare(string message, Country colleague) {
            if (colleague == colleague1) {
                colleague2.GetMessage(message);
            }
            else{
                colleague1.GetMessage(message);
            }
        }
    }
    //国家
    abstract class Country{
        protected UnitedNations mediator;
        public Country(UnitedNations mediator) {
            this.mediator = mediator;
        }
    }
    //美国
    class USA : Country{
        public USA(UnitedNations mediator)
            : base(mediator) {
        }
        //声明
        public void Declare(string message) {
            mediator.Declare(message, this);
        }
        //获得消息
        public void GetMessage(string message) {
            Console.WriteLine("美国获得对方信息:" + message);
        }
    }
    //伊拉克
    class Iraq : Country{
        public Iraq(UnitedNations mediator)
            : base(mediator) {
        }
        //声明
        public void Declare(string message) {
            mediator.Declare(message, this);
        }
        //获得消息
        public void GetMessage(string message) {
            Console.WriteLine("伊拉克获得对方信息:" + message);
        }
    }
    class Program{
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            UnitedNationsSecurityCouncil UNSC = new UnitedNationsSecurityCouncil();
            USA c1 = new USA(UNSC);
            Iraq c2 = new Iraq(UNSC);
            UNSC.Colleague1 = c1;
            UNSC.Colleague2 = c2;
            c1.Declare("不准研制核武器,否则要发动战争!");
            c2.Declare("我们没有核武器,也不怕侵略。");
            Console.Read();
        }
    }

Memento行为:在不破坏封装性的前提下,捕获一个对象的内部状态,并在该对象之外保存这个状态。这样以后就可将该对象恢复到保存的状态。

    class Originator{
        private string state;
        public string State{
            get { return state; }
            set { state = value; }
        }
        public Memento CreateMemento(){
            return (new Memento(state));
        }
        public void SetMemento(Memento memento) {
            state = memento.State;
        }
        public void Show(){
            Console.WriteLine("State=" + state);
        }
    }
    class Memento{
        private string state;
        public Memento(string state) {
            this.state = state;
        }
        public string State{
            get { return state; }
        }
    }
    class Caretaker{
        private Memento memento;
        public Memento Memento{
            get { return memento; }
            set { memento = value; }
        }
    }
    class Program{
        static void Main(string[] args) {
            Originator o = new Originator();
            o.State = "On";
            o.Show();
            Caretaker c = new Caretaker();
            c.Memento = o.CreateMemento();
            o.State = "Off";
            o.Show();
            o.SetMemento(c.Memento);
            o.Show();
            Console.Read();
        }
    } 

 Observer行为:定义对象间的一种一对多的依赖关系,以便当一个对象的状态发生改变时,所有依赖于它的对象都得到通知并自动更新。分成推模式和拉模式。

推模式:

    abstract class Subject{
        private IList<Observer> observers = new List<Observer>();
        //增加观察者
        public void Attach(Observer observer) {
            observers.Add(observer);
        }
        //移除观察者
        public void Detach(Observer observer) {
            observers.Remove(observer);
        }
        //通知
        public void Notify(){
            foreach (Observer o in observers) {
                o.Update();
            }
        }
    }
    //具体通知者
    class ConcreteSubject : Subject{
        private string subjectState;
        //具体通知者状态
        public string SubjectState {
            get { return subjectState; }
            set { subjectState = value; }
        }
    }
    abstract class Observer{
        public abstract void Update();
    }
    class ConcreteObserver : Observer{
        private string name;
        private string observerState;
        private ConcreteSubject subject;
        public ConcreteObserver(
          ConcreteSubject subject, string name) {
            this.subject = subject;
            this.name = name;
        }
        //更新
        public override void Update(){
            observerState = subject.SubjectState;
            Console.WriteLine("观察者{0}的新状态是{1}",
              name, observerState);
        }
        public ConcreteSubject Subject{
            get { return subject; }
            set { subject = value; }
        }
    }
    class Program {
        static void Main(string[] args) {
            ConcreteSubject s = new ConcreteSubject();
            s.Attach(new ConcreteObserver(s, "X"));
            s.Attach(new ConcreteObserver(s, "Y"));
            s.Attach(new ConcreteObserver(s, "Z"));
            s.SubjectState = "ABC";
            s.Notify();
            Console.Read();
        }
} 

拉模式:

    //通知者接口
    interface Subject{
        void Notify();
        string SubjectState{
            get;
            set;
        }
    }
    //事件处理程序的委托
    delegate void EventHandler();
    class Secretary : Subject{
        //声明一事件Update,类型为委托EventHandler
        public event EventHandler Update;
        private string action;
 
        public void Notify(){
            Update();
        }
        public string SubjectState{
            get { return action; }
            set { action = value; }
        }
    }
    class Boss : Subject{
        //声明一事件Update,类型为委托EventHandler
        public event EventHandler Update;
        private string action;
        public void Notify(){
            Update();
        }
        public string SubjectState{
            get { return action; }
            set { action = value; }
        }
    }
    //看股票的同事
    class StockObserver{
        private string name;
        private Subject sub;
        public StockObserver(string name, Subject sub) {
            this.name = name;
            this.sub = sub;
        }
        //关闭股票行情
        public void CloseStockMarket(){
            Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} 关闭股票行情,继续工作!", sub.SubjectState, name);
        }
    }
    //NBA的同事
    class NBAObserver{
        private string name;
        private Subject sub;
        public NBAObserver(string name, Subject sub) {
            this.name = name;
            this.sub = sub;
        }
        //关闭NBA直播
        public void CloseNBADirectSeeding(){
            Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} 关闭NBA直播,继续工作!", sub.SubjectState, name);
        }
    }
class Program{
        static void Main(string[] args) {
            //老板胡汉三
            Boss huhansan = new Boss();
            //看股票的同事
            StockObserver tongshi1 = new StockObserver("魏关姹", huhansan);
            //NBA的同事
            NBAObserver tongshi2 = new NBAObserver("易管查", huhansan);
            huhansan.Update += new EventHandler(tongshi1.CloseStockMarket);
            huhansan.Update += new EventHandler(tongshi2.CloseNBADirectSeeding);
            //老板回来
            huhansan.SubjectState = "我胡汉三回来了!";
            //发出通知
            huhansan.Notify();
            Console.Read();
       }
      }

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